Alkalinity is the quantitative capacity of a water sample to neutralize an acid to a set pH.

Sugar content

By knowing the refractive index of a substance, users can understand such properties as the sugar content of must or juice and many other products throughout wine and food industry.


Precise process control is one of the most important factors in maintaining high quality in production, just as precision and accuracy are the key to research.


Turbidity of water is an optical property that causes light to be scattered and absorbed, rather than transmitted.

Chemical Oxygen Demand

Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) is a measure of the biologically available and inert organic matter that is susceptible to oxidation by a strong oxidizing agent.